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Driving down climate impact with renewable diesel, biogas and electricity

AFRY study finds renewable diesel, biogas and electricity powered vehicles have three times lower climate impact than cars using conventional fuels.

AFRY's team of Management Consultants reviewed the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of a passenger car in Sweden from a life cycle perspective using a Well-To-Wheel approach, including production and scrapping of the car. The goal was to indicate quantitatively how selected fuel types in the current Swedish market compare with each other in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for all stages in the vehicle and fuel life cycle (i.e. production of vehicles, use phase of 200,000 km and the vehicle end-of-life). In addition to conventional fuels and electricity, biofuels and hydrogen were included.

The study shows that hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO100), biogas and electricity powered vehicles can have three times lower climate impact than cars using conventional fuels. The results range from 9 to 37 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent during a vehicle’s full life cycle in the Swedish market. The sensitivity analyses show large variations of GHG emissions among the same fuel type produced from different in-feed sources, which can be further strengthened by assumptions on the production stage.

As the model is based on publicly available data, which were limited and with heterogeneous assumptions, the results should be interpreted as indicative, and getting acquainted with the assumptions and limitations of the sources is encouraged.

The study was conducted by AFRY Management Consulting, commissioned by Energiforsk and financed by Neste AB. Read the report, published by Energiforsk.


Saara Söderberg

VP & Head of Bioindustry, AFRY Management Consulting

Contact Saara Söderberg

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