Rows of wind power turbines

AFRY and Iberdrola explore a holistic roadmap towards a zero-emissions EU energy sector in 2050


This 2020 report prepared jointly by AFRY and Iberdrola aims to identify the keys to a successful and efficient decarbonisation of the energy sector by 2050 in Europe, with a focus on Great Britain and Spain – the energy sector being in this study power generation, heat, and road and rail transport. In April 2021, this report is complemented by an update study focusing on the final energy costs and the investments corresponding to this pathway in Spain.

Read the full report

The main report concludes that the optimal pathway to a zero-carbon future needs fast and massive penetration of electric vehicles, that heat pumps will be key to decarbonise buildings and a mix of energies are needed to allow the efficient decarbonisation of industry. In the power sector, a generation mix largely dominated by renewables means flexibility must migrate towards demand-side, where EVs and heat pumps connected to smart grids will help demand balance the generation profile and avoid curtailments or load losses. Hydrogen will be a key complement to electrification, mainly produced with renewable electricity.

Read the Update

The 2021 update shows that, in Spain, the zero-carbon energy sector described in the main report results in lesser final energy costs for individual consumers and businesses, due mainly to the electrification of transport and of building heating. This is made possible despite the huge investments needed in the electricity sector, as the strong growth in demand reverses the trend and allows for a reduction of the final unitary cost of electricity.

Xana Farris Juanes

Senior Consultant, AFRY Management Consulting

Dorian de Kermadec

Senior Principal, AFRY Management Consulting

Richard Sarsfield-Hall

Director, AFRY Management Consulting